Company Registration In India
The organizational structure you choose will determine the taxes you have to pay,
the compliance measures you need to follow and the eligibility criteria you need to meet.
Hence, one of the most vital decisions an entrepreneur can make is deciding what type of
business registration to do in India. Moreover, the Indian legal system allows various types of
companies to exist under different Types of company registration. In this blog, we will take a
look at the different types of business entities and types of company registration. And I am
a Business Partner with tax seva Kendra.
Types of Company Registration
Company registration is the primary process by which business owners establish or
incorporate their company. Since there are several types of companies in India,
entrepreneurs have to ensure they choose a business type that suits their
operations. In India, the Companies Act, 2013 lays down guidelines for different
types of company registration. Hence, here’s a quick look at the Business type list
1. Private Limited Company
2. Public Limited Company
4. Limited Liability Partnership
5. One Person Company
6. Sole Proprietorship
7. Section 8 Company
Now we will take a look at the different types of companies and their registration
process in detail.
Private Limited Company
Private Limited Companies are suitable for small businesses that require
registration as a private entity. In this type of company, a group of shareholders
distributes the liability amongst themselves to help protect their personal assets.
The total capital of such business types is the total of all the shares held by each
member of the company. Also, the personal and business assets of the members
are considered separate, allowing for better protection and security.
The shares of
such a company cannot be publicly traded or transferred. As per the Companies
Act, 2013 to be eligible for this type of business registration, the private limited
company must meet the following criteria;
1. Minimum of two and maximum of fifteen directors
2. At least one of the directors must be an Indian resident
3. Minimum of two and maximum of 200 shareholders or members
4. Additionally, an authorized capital fee amounting to at least INR 1 Lakh
5. Must have a registered office address within India
Types of Private Companies
1. Limited By Shares: In such private limited companies, the liability of the
members is determined by the memorandum to amount unpaid on shares
allotted to them.
2. Limited By Guarantee: In this case, the liability of members is limited by the
memorandum of the amount of members will contribute or guarantees to
pay if the company goes bankrupt.
3. Unlimited: Moreover, such types of business entities do not have any limit on
the liability of its members. As a result, if the company assets fail to pay off
creditors, members will have to use their private assets to clear debts,
increasing the risk factor involved.
Public Limited Company
A Public Limited Company is one whose shares may be purchased by members of
the general public. In such business entities, there is no limit on the number of
shares that can be sold or traded. Since the shares of the company are listed on the
Stock Exchange, they can be traded freely, making the shareholders part-owners of
the company. Such companies need to obtain a Certificate of Registration from the
RoC before commencing business operations. Further, as per the Companies Act,
2013 to be eligible for this type of business registration, the public limited company
must meet the following criteria;
1. Minimum of three directors
2. At least one of the Directors must be an Indian resident
3. Minimum of seven shareholders with no cap on the maximum limit
4. Moreover, an authorised capital fee amounting to at least INR 5 Lakhs
5. Further, must have a registered office address within India
In such business entities, the handling of the operations is handled by partners,
who have agreed to their role and share in profits. Hence, the functions, duties,
powers, and number of shares held are all clearly defined in a verbal contract
known as the Partnership Deed. Additionally, these businesses fall under the
purview of the Indian Partnership Act, 1932. Partnership firms can function with or
without a license as long as they have a valid and registered Partnership Deed.
However, most partnerships do register themselves as that gives them additional
rights. Moreover, to be eligible for this type of firm registration, the partnership
must meet the following criteria;
1. Minimum of two and maximum of fewer than ten partners
2. Moreover, must have a registered office address within India
3. Additionally, must have a registered Partnership Deed signed by all partners
Limited Liability Partnership
Popularly called an LLP, Limited Liability Partnerships are also a new type of
company in India. Moreover, it enjoys a separate legal status, helping distinguish
between personal and business assets, and granting the entrepreneurs limited
liability protection. In such firm types, the liability of each partner depends on the
number of share capital, helping provide more protection than a Sole
Proprietorship. Moreover, to be eligible for this type of business registration, the
LLP must meet the following criteria;
1. Minimum authorised capital amounting to INR 1 Lakh
2. At least one of the Designated Partners must be an Indian resident
3. Minimum of two partners and no cap on the maximum number
4. At least one individual partner, if the rest are corporate bodies
5. No required for shared capital since each partner must have an agreed
One Person Company
The newest entry into the different types of company registration allowed in India,
OPCs are great for small businesses. Additionally, it became a part of the
Companies Act 2013, to help entrepreneurs who wish to run a business single-
handedly. Since such a firm type has separate legal status, entrepreneurs get the
benefit of liability protection without having to partner with anyone else.
Furthermore, since they involve only one individual, this type of firm registration is
easy to incorporate and regulate. Moreover, this essentially serves as a
combination of the Sole-Proprietorship and Company model of business entities.
Additionally, to be eligible for this type of firm registration, the One Person
Company must meet the following criteria;
1. Minimum authorised capital amounting to at least INR 1 Lakh.
2. Further, an individual must be a natural Indian Citizen and resident
3. The promoter must appoint a nominee during the incorporation
4. Additionally, Financial businesses cannot incorporate as an OPC.
5. Further, should convert to a Private Limited Company if paid-up capital
exceeds INR 50 lakhs or turnover exceeds INR 2 crores.
This is another type of business entity wherein a single individual handles the
running of the business. However, in this firm type, the company and the owner are
considered as a single entity, making them solely responsible for profits and losses.
Moreover, since the registration bears the name of the owners, tax filings and
accounting reports will also bear the name of the owner, leading to unlimited
business liability. As a result, this type of company does not have a separate
business registration process.
Section 8 Company
Commonly called a Non-Profit Organisation, such companies mainly work for
charitable purposes. Moreover, it involves in promoting arts, science, literature,
education, caring for the needy, and protecting the environment. Also, all the
profits generated by such types of companies are used to achieve these objectives,
and the members do not take dividends for themselves. To be eligible for this type
of firm registration, the Section-8 Company must meet the following criteria;
1. Minimum of two shareholders
2. Minimum of two Directors and they can be shareholders as well
3. At least one of the Directors must be an Indian resident
4. No minimum capital requirement
5. Moreover, must have a registered office address in India
What are the benefits of company
● Protects from personal liability and other risks/losses.
● Inproves credibility and trust, and attracts more customers.
● Secure higher credit rating from banks and support from reliable investors.
● Liability protections to protect a company’s assets.
● Greater capital contribution and greater stability.
● Increase the potential growth for expansion.